Sunday, May 28, 2006

Bibliography #4

Milovanovic, Goran. MARKETING DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL ADVERTISING. Series: Economics and Organization, Vol. 1, No 5, 1997 pp 71 – 78

The paper points out key points regarding the nature of advertising messages in global markets, how messages need to be modified to suit the necessities of local markets and also the influence of advertising on the choice of brand of a product. It also covers the factors limiting the standardization of advertising campaigns across different countries and cultures.

It discusses about certain modifications in advertising campaigns are the best way to answer demand of different cultures. One example is Goodyear Tire & Rubber, which used the slogan “Goodyear, take me home” in 39 countries, but there were certain differences. For instance in Philippines, they stressed certain emotional family scenes while in Brazil they ended these with a visual joke.

The paper also deducted that global products need global advertising. This is often the case. Sometimes global advertising of a global brand mishaps and a company must turn to multinational adaptation or in other words, multinational advertising strategy in order to meet demands of individual markets.

Also, a different content in commercials is conditioned by the image of a product and different motive of consumers on different markets. So even if a company sells the same products worldwide it is not realistic to expect that they will demand uniformed advertisement campaigns.

The paper further explores the cultural and economic differences between countries and markets that often demand off hand difference between basic advertising appeal and creative implementation of that appeal to be made in local markets. One example provided is how a shaving cream called "Edge" is advertised as smooth shaving. To demonstrate such advantages of the foam in USA, the company employed the idea of showing a man stroking his face with a credit card. The side, which used "Edge" foam, is smoother and softer than the other side, which used some other brand. The appeal of smooth shaving could be spread on to global markets, but on many markets, non-existence of credit cards would limit creativity of such appeal so overall efforts would be inefficient.

Another interesting point, pointed out in the paper is about translating a message. Milovanovic explains that efficient translation demands:

1) Good knowledge of original language and the one into which it is being translated.
2) Good knowledge of technical aspects of the product and special appeals about the product and ability to write text, which can recreate the effect.

Milovanovic explain more on the decision whether to produce a new advertisement concept for foreign market or simply have it translated into the local tongue. The ‘expert’ must be sure that when the text is translated, it will be accepted and understood by prospective target market or consumers. The expert must think in the language into which he/she wants to translate the message and to also understand connotations of the words, phrases and the meaning used to make sure that the message will be properly understood and not offensive. This is a good condition of good communication.

Milovanovic also touches on the responsibilities of the 'manager' in a globally oriented company to understand all limitations on national and foreign markets (differences in culture, limitations of media, complex regulations etc.).

The paper covers global brands such as Coca-cola, Pepsi and McDonalds, which are mainly the result of the development and implementation of a global marketing strategy. These examples of global brands have the same name, the same style and demands the same creative strategy everywhere in the world.

One example that I think is interesting to point out here is regarding how global brands need a message or concept that can be communicated globally across different cultures. For example a commercial in Arabic for men's perfume "Drakkar Noir" showed a woman's hand stroking the man's hand holding the perfume; in USA the same hand hold the wrist of the man. Through recognizing such differences, the ad campaign can avoid from being offensive to culturally sensitive countries. In France it is unacceptable to have a commercial showing cheese and a glass of beer. Such a commercial would be in accordance with the habits of the Germans whereas in France the acceptable combination would be cheese and wine.

I have attached an example here of the Drakkar Noir ad in USA, Spain, France and Saudi Arabia for comparison.


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