Friday, June 16, 2006

Bib #29 'Which Ad Pulled Best?'

Philip, Ward Burton, and Purvis, Scott C., ed. 'Which Ad Pulled Best?' 50 Case Histories on How to Write and Design Ads That Work 8th ed. NTC Business Books: Illinois, USA, 1996.

This book provides examples of case studies done in the past on ads across different medias, in different national markets. It also features the copy-testing expertise of Gallup and Robinson. Inc. G & R maintains a data bank of more than 100,000 print ads and TV commercials, and provides many of today's major advertisers with measurements of the effectiveness of their advertising expenditures in different cultures. It is interesting to see how different target markets from different cultures react differently to an advertising or marketing exercise.

Bib #28 The Media & Communications in Australia.

Cunningham, Stuart, and Turner, Graeme, ed. The Media & Communications in Australia. Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2002.

I find this book relevant to my research as it offers a systematic introduction to this dynamic and often bewildering field. It outlines the key media industries, and explains how the new communication technologies are impacting on them. It also provides a thorough overview of the main approaches taken in studying the media. A section of the book explores the thorny issues of media ethics, audiences, youth media and the future of journalism. The types of media and communications available in Australia, is very important for me to know as Australia is a multicultural country, different facets of the culture have different types of exposure to different types of media.

Bib #27 "Difficulties in Communication."

Marcom Projects. "Difficulties in Communication." Effective Communications. VHS. Meridien Education Corporation RWMEC3, 1992.

Not all communication is perfect, our message is not always understood. This can cause difficulties and sometimes extreme frustration. This video looks at these difficulties and discusses ways to minimise them.

This video also outlined 4 Basic Patterns of Communication.
1. Placate
2. Blame
3. Compute
4. Distract

The video is a short 8 minute video which I find very relevant in a way that it highlights how communications between people can possibly go wrong and this is also prevalent in inter-cultural communication, from culture to culture.

Bib #26 what is NAATI?

n.a. "National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd." May 22 2006:, June 2006.

I went to this website and found that NAATI which stands for National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters, is the only highly recognized translating and interpreting body in Australia. NAATI accreditation has been instrumental in providing quality assurance to recipients of Translation and Interpreting services and in giving credibility to agencies that employ accredited practitioners.

The organization identified 8 Levels of Accreditation.

Paraprofessional Translator (formerly known as level 2)
This represents a level of competence in translation for the purpose of producing a translated version of non-specialised information. Practitioners at this level are encouraged to proceed to the professional levels of accreditation.

Paraprofessional Interpreter (formerly known as level 2)
This represents a level of competence in interpreting for the purpose of general conversations. Paraprofessional Interpreters generally undertake the interpretation of non-specialist dialogues. Practitioners at this level are encouraged to proceed to the professional levels of accreditation.

Translator (formerly known as level 3)
This is the first professional level and represents the minimum level of competence for professional translating. Translators convey the full meaning of the information from the source language into the target language in the appropriate style and register. Translators at this level work across a wide range of subjects involving documents with specialised content. Translators may choose to specialise. They are qualified to translate into one language only or into both languages, depending upon their accreditation.

Interpreter (formerly known as level 3)
This is the first professional level and represents the minimum level of competence for professional interpreting. Interpreters convey the full meaning of the information from the source language into the target language in the appropriate style and register. Interpreters at this level are capable of interpreting across a wide range of subjects involving dialogues at specialist consultations. They are also capable of interpreting presentations by the consecutive mode. Their specialisations may include banking, law, health, and social and community services.

Advanced Translator (formerly known as level 4)
This is the advanced professional level and represents the competence to handle complex, technical and sophisticated translation. Advanced Translators handle complex, technical and sophisticated material, compatible with recognised international standards. They may choose to specialise in certain areas. Advanced translators are accredited to translate either into one language only or into both languages, depending upon their accreditation.

Conference Interpreter (formerly known as level 4)
This is the advanced professional level and represents the competence to handle complex, technical and sophisticated interpreting. Conference Interpreters practise both consecutive and simultaneous interpreting in diverse situations, including at conferences, high-level negotiations, and court proceedings. Conference Interpreters operate at levels compatible with recognised international standards, and may choose to specialise in certain areas.

Advanced Translator (Senior) (formerly known as level 5)
This is the highest level of NAATI accreditation and reflects both competence and experience. Advanced Translators (Senior) are Advanced Translators with a level of excellence in their field, recognised through demonstrated extensive experience and leadership.

Conference Interpreter (Senior) (formerly known as level 5)
This is the highest level of NAATI accreditation and reflects both competence and experience. Conference Interpreters (Senior) are Conference Interpreters with a level of excellence in their field, recognised through demonstrated extensive experience and leadership.

I find this relevant to my topic as I intend to have this Mediating Agency I am looking at developing based in Australia and for this, I need to know where do I go to and to whom I refer to for highly skilled and qualified translators and interpreters.

Bib #25 Global and Multinational Advertising

Englis, Basil G., ed. Global and Multinational Advertising. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Rutgers University, 1994.

Englis, Basil G. (ed.) (1994), Global and Multinational Advertising, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

The book generally explained in detail the few applied disciplines which are more sensitive to cross-cultural issues than marketing and consumer psychology. The chapters prepared for this volume reflect awareness of both similarities and differences within and across cultures. They include analyses of methodological issues, theoretical investigations of cultural and social values and their implications for marketing specialists, studies of gender- and sub-culture specific advertising, and investigations of advertising efforts in several different international markets. The scholars and advertising professionals who contributed these chapters will have much to say to consumer psychologists and marketing specialists alike.

Bib #24 'A Woman's Place?.'

Phipps, Sue. 'A Woman's Place?.' The Portrayal of Women in Advertisements. Abford House: London, 1991. pp. 3-28

This book published by The Advertising Association in London covers the way women are depicted in the media, across different cultures and how it has received increasing attention as people have realized the effect such images can have on their audience.

Advertising, while it uses a variety of communication techniques, from computer graphics to animation, and from so-called "slice of life" drama to the distinctly surreal, has been a particular focus of attention for its portrayal of women, not least from practitioners in the industry itself.

The way I find this read is relevant to my topic is that it covers a wide range of issues regarding advertisements about women, and how women in different countries and cultures react to a certain marketing or advertising campaign aimed towards them.

Thursday, June 15, 2006

Bib #23 "Harvey Nichols Spring Summer Campaign."

Crandall, Greg. "Harvey Nichols Spring Summer Campaign." Making Waves Q1/06. 2006:, 15 June 2006.

This is an article by one of the advertising folks that I am going to meet when I am overseas, Greg Crandall, owner of Splash Communications which is based in Hong Kong with offices in Thailand and Singapore.

The article is about Harvey Nichols launching their new store in Hong Kong and how did they do it in the first place. Read the excerpt below.

In their first advertising efforts, they leveraged the campaign created for their UK outlets. But like most brands coming to Asia for the first time, they later realized that Hong Kong was not overly familiar with the brand and that it was time to re-interpret the global profile with a more localized approach.
I find this article absolutely relevant to my topic. It is a good recent example of how a company that wants to provide exclusive, leading-edge fashion to a city that only cares about trophy shopping, being localized but still maintains a global profile. Look at the posters attached with this entry. The main "star" is wearing a bright red top, as Red is a well-known representation of 'LUCK' in Chinese culture and the use of it is recommended for ads or campaigns that appear in this culture.

Bib #22

n.a. "Adcandy." 2004:, June 2006

Adcandy, a US based website main objective is to give consumers a voice and platform to express their creative advertising ideas, product improvement suggestions, and images. In doing so, they hope to provide companies a unique look into the minds of their consumers.

This website is relevant to my research topic on cross-cultural communication as, the public can easily answer any briefs advertised on the adcandy website and if their ideas are chosen, they will get to win prizes. I think this in a way could affect the future of advertising. What could this mean is that, a product can be marketed globally and across different national markets more easily since the consumer is given the opportunity to voice out what they think.

But just imagine, what would happen if more and more products and ad campaigns are being devise in this manner?

Could the role of advertising and marketing companies vanished?

Does this mean ads are better targeted?

Will this be an indication that global advertising will soon faced lesser issues and problems, and target local cultures effectively?

Just check out adcandy and see if you guys could give a try at answering some of the briefs they have on their website.

Bib #21 The New How to Advertise

Roman, Kenneth, and Maas, Jane, ed. The New How to Advertise. London: Kogan Page, 1992. pp.115-124

The chapter of the book on Global Brands is an interesting one. Coca-Cola, Sony, Levi's, Mercedes-Benz, Pepsi, Benetton, Canon, Marlboro, American Express, Nestle, Gillette, Martell, McDonalds - all are established global brands with a unified positioning. More open markets, international travel and communications, and international advertising contribute to more global brands. Cultural phenomena such as popular music, rock music stars, and movies are making this easier; entertainment is a global language. The international media are also fueling this trend, including satellite television.

For a global marketing exercise to be successful, it is pretty much dependent on the product and the positioning that is relevant to the needs of the consumer. According to the book, those needs varies by culture. Some products are not highly culture bound and are easier to market around the world - computer and consumer electronics for example. Foods are more difficult, and the closer a particular food comes to being a part of one country's staple diet, the harder it is to transfer across borders.

According to UNILEVER, one of the easiest categories to market globally is an impulse product - like ice cream bars. Products sometimes may have to be modified to compete locally; McDonald's added beer to their menus in Germany for example.

One Interesting point in the chapter is that while cultures and habits do vary, people's emotions are surprisingly similar, and that is what makes global brands possible.

Few points to look at on how to create a worldwide campaign. Three main points:
1. Agreement on International or regional brand positioning, image and strategy.
2. Local understanding of the business environment and of national language, values, and culture.
3. A shared advertiser-agency commitment to the concept of a global brand.

Other interesting and relevant points in this book.

- Think worldwide, not "international."
- Agree upon an umbrella strategy for the brand, including positioning and brand personality. A strong global positioning signifies that a brand means the same thing to consumers in all countries.
- Capture knowledge from experience. It is important to develop and articulate principles, and set directions for creative execution. Put what you've learned into papers and presentations. Include an example of advertising that usually works - or doesn't - and explain why.
- Encourage local initiative.
- Know the knowledge. Proper use of language is vital. Be careful with translations and adaptations.
- Know the culture. Different people have different values - the food they eat, the clothes they wear, in their relationships with each other.
- Think direct marketing.
- Make it easy. Create a strong idea and format that can be easily adapted for worldwide use.
- Create and produce the advertising locally. It is crucial to understand national attitudes and habits, as well as language.

Bib #20 Marketing Across Cultures

Usunier, Jean-Claude, ed. Marketing Across Cultures 3rd ed. 2000.

This book uses a two-stage cultural approach to exploring international marketing:
- A cross-cultural approach - this compares marketing systems and local commercial customs in various countries.

- An inter-cultural approach - the study of interaction between business peoples of different national markets.

What I find relevant in this book is that with the globalization of markets, it is emphasized in this book in particular how consumer behavior and marketing environments are converging at a global level while customers still give very different meanings to consumption. It also highlights the understanding of what is country-specific and what is universal, is essential for the design of marketing strategies that can successfully be implemented across national markets. The part of the book I found most helpful is on how the book explores the theoretical and practical implications of thinking local but acting global.

The difference offered in this book so far, compared to what I have read is that it emphasizes people, languages and cultures, and recognizes the diversity in local consumer knowledge and marketing practices. This approach, which is also followed by multinational companies, combines the search for global competitiveness with the necessary adjustment for local success.

Bib #19 "When is a cat not a cat?."

Garcia, Sara. "When is a cat not a cat?." Developing a single, strong, precise, motivating position is hard in one language, argues Sara Garcia: doing it in more that one requires an open mind. Admap. (1998): 1-5

This article I find very relevant is about the planners, researchers and marketing teams spend much time and effort trying to define a single meaningful identity for brands across international markets. While for some brands differences in the history of their development, product usage or the mix of markets make this impossible, it is still the marketer's dream. With a single succinct, motivating identity there is a good chance of being able to create a single advertising strategy and ultimately a single campaign.

However, en route to this dream goal, problems arise and the result is often trying to shoe-horn positionings into needs which they do not quite fit. To do this, the positioning is amended, reduced, manipulated and generally weakened. It is not quite the poignant concept we started out with. Why do we seem to be compromising and what can we do to enrich rather than impoverish?

This article demonstrated very well what went wrong with the recent Australian Tourism ad campaign which was launch globally last March 2006. The campaign which attracted a lot of attention the world over with it's selling line, "Where the bloody hell are you?" had to change some of its execution to suit local cultures in different national markets. The campaign was tailored to suit the Japanese market and because there is literally no swear words in Japanese thus limiting the effect intended of the selling line in the first place, the campaign had the "effect" it wanted reduced in some ways so that it could fit in a local market which is of course very compromising and risky. Compare these selling lines, "Where the bloody hell are you?" and the Japanese version, "Where are you?". Which one you prefer?

Bib #18 "One Language, Different Peoples."

Gnadig, Ayo. "One Language, Different Peoples." The Language and Behavior Profile - A Tool for Intercultural Communication and Understanding. World Association of Research Professionals. (2004): 1-12

The big question posed in the first part of the introduction of this article really intrigued me.

Why is it - though the same language is spoken - that we sometimes don't understand each other?

The paper aims to demonstrate a method to identify differences in communication and a tool to deal with them - the Language and Behavior Profile. It is followed by an expose about four German speaking countries/markets and how understanding differences in communication can feed into meaningful brand communication.

West Germany, East Germany, Switzerland and Austria are especially interesting in this this respect because they share a common language and culture - but it has become obvious that there are strong underlying differences in the mentalities of their populations that are important for marketing communications, in as much they represent four different markets for marketing that often need to be addressed separately. Their differences seem to be rooted in their history, which is most obvious in the case of the differences between East and West Germany.

To deal with these differences, clearly expressed in the question I placed in the first part of this entry, with the help of the Language and Behavior Profile we will discover how different cultures think, what dives them and how this is apparent in their use of language.

This will then help to understand why the communication of a brand works in one country and not at all in others. The questions and topics in the article raised interesting issues explaining why is it important to understand a culture and how people belonging to a certain part of a region act the way they do.

Bib #17 "Cultural and language effects on Chinese bilinguals' and Canadians' responses to advertising."

Toffoli, Roy and Laroche, Michel. "Cultural and language effects on Chinese bilinguals' and Canadians' responses to advertising." International Journal of Advertising 21.4 (2002): 1-12

Increasing globalization of businesses is a sign that more work needs to be done on examining how consumers from different cultures perceive and react to different communication factors.

This journal examines how audiences from Hong Kong and English Canada - two cultures at opposite ends of the individualism - collectivism spectrum - differ in their perception of the honesty and forcefulness of a message source in an informational advertisement. It also examines the effects of these differences on the attitude towards the ad and the brand.

The journal also points out the notion that as an individual masters a second language he/she also adopts some of the cultural attitudes and values related to that language. This adoption of attitudes and values of the culture associated with a second language represents a form of acculturation.

The results of the study demonstrated in the journal, reinforce the need for managers to understand the distinctive characteristics of Chinese communication and their implications for persuasive messages.

Bib #16 "Cosmopolitanism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2002 Edition)

Brown, Eric and Kleingeld, Pauline. "Cosmopolitanism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2002 Edition). 2002:, June 2006

The word ‘cosmopolitan’, which derives from the Greek word kosmopolitês (‘citizen of the world’), has been used to describe a wide variety of important views in moral and socio-political philosophy. The nebulous core shared by all cosmopolitan views is the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, do (or at least can) belong to a single community, and that this community should be cultivated. Different versions of cosmopolitanism envision this community in different ways, some focusing on political institutions, others on moral norms or relationships, and still others focusing on shared markets or forms of cultural expression. The philosophical interest in cosmopolitanism lies in its challenge to commonly recognized attachments to fellow-citizens, the local state, parochially shared cultures, and the like.

Cosmopolitanism - regarding my intention of developing this Mediating "cultural-linguistic-CREATIVE-interpreter-translator mediator" agency, this word is actually very relevant to what I want to do and is also one of the important things I need to carefully look at and examine. I have to define the word Cosmopolitanism in order to understand and also find out to what degree of complexity in global advertising, marketing and communications across different market. For example, the new nouveau riche in the outskirts of Beijing, might have very similar taste in music, TV programs, cars, house, way of life and style compare to someone who is also wealthy in let say, California. The local Beijing "new money" might not share similar values and style and the way of life with someone who is a farmer working at the paddy field in Beijing, but instead, have more similar qualities and aspirations with h/hers California counterpart.

Bib #15 "Language Copywriting Services."

n.a. "Language Copywriting Services." EBusiness Globalisation and Translation Experts. 17 March 2006:, 15 June 2006.

Translation alone can only mirror the exact meaning of the source (original) word for word or sentence for sentence. As the original text was written for English audience, the expression, style and how information is presented target the English speaking audience. Different cultural audience model and express information differently, so translation alone can not mirror the same marketing pitch or the under laying message design to influence the readers. This is where language copywriting comes in.

Language copywriting aims to creatively write the language content that not only captures the exact meaning of the text, but also the expression, style and the under laying messages design to influence to reader.

Note: The mediating agency I am looking at developing will only hire copywriters who have a strong command of English and their native language, have the experience and background, or studied, or worked in the advertising industry as this Mediating agency will only serve the advertising, marketing and communication companies.

Bib #14 Grey Worldwide "The work - Pantene Shines." Grey Matter Issue Three 2006: 4

Found this article on Pantene - I find very relevant to my research topic. Pantene is a good example of a global brand tapping into different national markets by tailoring their campaign executions to suit a local culture. In a global first, Australia/ New Zealand was briefed as lead market for Pantene's international relaunch.

(the article)
In a category jam-packed with product choice, preening and over-promise, the new Pantene looks, feels and is a cut above. Pantene going into 2006 is smart, sassy, confident, up-market and refreshingly real. No longer predictable, she dresses differently - wearing a new logo and pack design - and she's different on the inside too, thanks to a new formula and a new attitude, embodied in the selling line - Shine, Pantene.

Look out for her in the TV, print, web, PR and in-store work, much of which was created by Grey Melbourne. Listen out for her music. She's someone you just might want to hang out with.

Bib #13 Grey Worldwide "ASIA - a complex challenge." Grey Matter Issue Two 2006: 1-2

I got this periodical while waiting for my filmed interview with Paul Gardner today who is the Group Chairman of GREY Global Group in Australia and New Zealand. According to him the agency used to be an ad agency but now has expanded to a media communications group. Some it's clients are AXA Investments (Paul's baby according to him), Australia Post, Ambi Pur, BOSS Hugo Boss, Australian Conservation Foundation, Ribena, Pringles, TAC, Leggo's and others. I will write more on my interview with him today on my next entry.

For now I am going to focus on the article that appeared in Grey Worldwide periodical, Grey Matter.

I found the article titled "ASIA - a complex challenge" as been very relevant to my research topic. The article is mainly about the recent study conducted by Grey on the attitudes and values of Asian people with a view to effectively marketing and communicating in Asia. Grey has conducted 4600 interviews in 11 countries, namely Hong Kong (I am going there on the 1st of July!), China, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, Korea and Japan. The findings reveal a great and complex place where western goods are welcome, but also a place that is becoming contemporary in its own way and will not accept the West unless it complements local cultures and traditions.

The article was also talking about how Asia is such a complex area and is not a homogenous region. Every Asian country has its own cultural traditions and these can not be disregarded for a Western fad. The region contains countries with vast and deeply engrained differences such as religious beliefs as varied as Buddhism, Catholicism and Islam. The article pointed out that one of the biggest mistakes from marketers is, being insensitive to these cultural, aesthetic and moral norms. Few examples such as in Thailand where they have a deep Buddhist tradition, some western commercials can seem brash, aggressive and hard sell. Likewise in India, advertising in commercials can seem overly suggestive and erotic, offending local sensitivities. Another good point in the article is that brands that can be highly tuned to cultural norms across the region certainly stand a better chance than those that are simply transporting western values.

The article talks about the laws affecting advertising and marketing in Asia which varies and are often very different let say for example Australia. In some cases the laws are inadequate and brands should be careful not to take advantage of these situations. One example is in India where there are no laws governing advertising which means children can be subjected to inappropriate communication for their age. One point on puffery in advertising that interest me is that, consumers in Asia pointed especially to medical, health care, diet products for typical over-claim. This is especially prevalent in Beijing and Shanghai where there is no laws on the prevention of over-claiming.

Relevancy to my topic: This periodical provides a thorough insight for my research on cross-cultural communication and my intention of developing a creative based translation-interpretation-cultural service as I have to look more carefully into issues regarding cultural, regional and communication sensitivities in Asia ESPECIALLY when Asia is not a homogenous region. I am now thinking of, instead of having a Chinese translator-interpreter representing China as a whole, I should look more into the different fragments of culture in China and have various translator-interpreter-creative mediators representing each of the many parts of China. That is my idea for now.

Monday, June 12, 2006

My RESEARCH ABSTRACT & What I Intend to do.

1. Problem:
Issues of cross-cultural communication raise significant and legitimate problems faced by the international creative industry, especially in advertising.

2. Why the problem is a problem:
The mistranslation of ideas, concepts, puns, nuances, copy, slogans and jingles can mean that the intent and theme of a major international campaign is misrepresented, simply naïve or even offensive to some target markets.

3. How to deal with the problem:
The development of a "cultural-linguistic-CREATIVE-interpreter-translator mediator" international agency, or mediator agency, would help advertising agencies to apply their creative outcomes in a range of national markets especially in the Asia Pacific Region.

The main idea is to develop an agency that hires translators and interpreters who has a background in the creative industry. UNLIKE other translating and interpreting agencies which serves a whole range of businesses, this Mediator Agency only serves the advertising, marketing and media communication companies.

What are the prerequisites for the translator/ interpreters hired by this Mediator agency?
a) The mediators/translators/interpreters need to possess a good command of English and their native language.

b) The mediators/translators/interpreters need to have a background or experience in advertising or creative industry. Why? Because they understand the industry jargon and terms in advertising unlike other generic translators and interpreters who don't have a clue and idea about the technical terms used in advertising thus limiting their capability to complete an assignment effectively.

c) The mediators/translators/interpreters need to reside in their native countries. Why? Because as language changes through time, a term or word that is valid or widely used today, might not be well-known tomorow.

d) Possess good people skills. This is especially important for interpreters cum accounts service positions who might represent an international agency.

e) In touch with the culture they represent.

4. This would facilitate effective cross-cultural communication, thus helping to maintain brand identity and campaign strategies across different markets and cultures.

Saturday, June 03, 2006

Bibliography #12

Banerjee, Ashish. "International Advertising." Realities and Myths. Part 1, The Realities of International Advertising: International Advertising Developments. 2000. p 13 - 27

ATT: This entry is on International Advertising. Everything is lifted out of Ashish Banerjee's work for a simple reason that it is easier for me to come back to it later and only paraphrase the parts lifted, which I think is very relevant to my paper.

Nowadays, there is a lot of advertising campaigns that employ predominantly visual messages, obviating the need for language translation, and possible miscommunication, across borders.

I bet you guys know or maybe don't know this, BUT advertising is a worldwide business activity today. As marketers expand into countries they have previously not explored, and as media proliferate across countries, advertising is gaining momentum around the world. For those of you guys who travel a lot, you will see that advertising is the most visible manifestation of the globalization of business in general and of brands in particular.

The term INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING is widely used to denote cross-border advertising. The widest usage of the term INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING is in the context of advertising for brands that are marketed in many countries. Such advertising is also referred to as global, multinational, multicountry, or cross-national advertising.

ADVERTISING IN THE CONTEXT OF BRANDS MARKETED AND ADVERTISED IN MANY COUNTRIES. There are a number of terms used to refer to advertising of brands marketed in many countries.

Global Advertising
This term is used to refer to advertising for universally ubiquitous brands, such as Coca-Cola, Marlboro cigarettes, Kodak photographic film, Benetton apparel, gucci accessories, Sony home electronics, and Perrier bottled water. Typically, the term global should be used as a qualifier only when the brand is available in a very large number of countries. and employs the same advertising executions in almost all of those countries.

The number of truly global brands are limited. Further it is not always necessary for a global brand to use global advertising executions.

International Advertising
Depending on the context, this term could refer to advertising from out of the country, or to global advertising, or to the international dimension of the advertising agency business.

Multinational Advertising
This term is used to refer to the advertising for multinational brands - brands that may not be as ubiquitous as global brands, but are nevertheless available in a large number of countries. E.g. Impulse body spray, Camay, Palmolive soaps, Head & Shoulders, Sunsilk/Gloria/Sedal, L'oreal hair-care line, Colgate and others.Most major airlines like Singapore, Lufthansa and British Airways.

Usually the development of advertising of such brands is somewhat centralized, with the "lead agency" or a major worldwide advertising network (usually New york, London or Paris office) being responsible for strategic planning and creative development.

Transnational Advertising
A more evolutionary and recent term used to connote advertising (for multinational brands) developed in a more participatory, decentralized manner, with the input of consumers, the agency network's personnel, and the client's marketing personnel from the various countries where the advertising will eventually be exposed.

Multidomestic Advertising
This is referred to the advertising used for a multidomestic brand - a brand that might have the same name across a number of countries but is characterized by different states of brand development and a relatively low degree of brand standardization across those countries. The advertising for such a brand would vary widely from country to country, depending upon the marketer's strategic intent and the set of circumstances contingent upon the brand in each country.

Multicountry Advertising Campaign Development.
Multicountry advertising campaigns are employed by marketers mainly when a particular brand is at a sufficiently significant level of development and sales in a fairly large number of countries.

A "good", effective multicountry advertising campaign focuses convincingly on the similarities while making allowances for the differences.

The development process for multinational campaigns is complex, because it involves many stages and many people (like me!!!!) in many countries. The advertising development process can run two ways:

1. Single-country development, subsequent testing, and rollout: A commercial is developed and exposed in one country, usually the brand's "lead market", where it generates the largest volumes of sales. If it successfully meets or exceeds its communication and effectiveness action standards,it is then tested in all other countries where the brand is marketed. If it tests well, management will usually decide to run the same commercial unchanged or with minor modifications to suit social, cultural, or executional difference across countries. Currently, minor or sometimes major changes are the norm.

2. Multicountry development and exposure: Agencies have begun to use multicountry teams to develop both advertising strategy and creative executions. This process ensures strategic and executional consistencies in the advertising used across all the markets, but is is usually employable for a limited number of brands in circumstances where the brands' constituencies of consumers are reasonably similar across countries.

Bibliography #11

Jones, John Philip. "International Advertising." Realities and Myths. 2000. p 3

How much benefit companies will gain from sensitive monitoring of market trends depends on the effectiveness of manufacturers' and advertising agencies' local antennae.It also depends on how much managers are encouraged to listen to the signals from the markets and on how quickly the firms react.

There are five different types of organizations that operate across national borders. The three marked with asterisks in the following list are widely recognized. The two remaining categories have come about as a result of relatively recent academic analysis that was undertaken because it had becoming increasingly obvious that the three more widely recognized organizational systems were unable to provide good enough guides for new evolving types of business.

1. Global organizations*: The role of overseas operations in global organizations is to "implement parent company strategies" - in other words, to use uniform techniques to market brands that are developed centrally.
2. International organizations*: In these types of organizations, overseas branches "adapt and leverage" parent company competencies; this allows a degree of flexibility in the adaptation of centrally developed brands.
3. Transnational organizations: In these organizations, overseas operations make different contributions to integrated worldwide operations by focusing partly on the local market and partly on how this can influence the firm as whole. This will encourage but not force a convergence of brands across the markets.
4. Permanent alliances: In permanent alliances, local operations remain independent, but alliances are cemented by the drive and self-interest of the decision makers in each country. Brands remain local, but convergence may possibly take place in the long term.
5. Multinationals*: In such organizations, the role of overseas subsidiaries is to "sense and exploit" local opportunities. Brands remain local.

Friday, June 02, 2006

Bibliography #10

Kloss, Ingomar. "More Advertising Worldwide." 2002.

It is not primarily the more theoretical question of standardization or differentiation which dominates the advertising strategy (at least for consumer goods) but the very practical necessity of adapting to the respective specific advertising conditions of each country. A standardized global, even multinational advertising campaign has to be considered the exception, rather than the rule.

International advertising is more a question of effectiveness and not efficiency. The more ad advertising campaign matches the local needs, local infrastructure, local regulations and local habits the more likely is its acceptance.

Bibliography #9

Kloss, Ingomar. "More Advertising Worldwide." 2002. pp 9 - 15

Elements of the Cultural Environment of International Business.
(I find that is it very important to consider these elements in developing the Mediator agency service)

Language and Communication
- Of all the cultural elements, language is perhaps the most obvious difference between cultures & probably the most difficult to acquire & understand. The ability to speak and understand the various interpretation of the language of a foreign country is essential for anyone planning a career in international business. The study of the foreign language should include both the verbal language, or factual knowledge, and the non-verbal language, or interpretive knowledge. Matching words with identical meanings from one language to another, without being aware of the nuances of the local language, double meanings of words and slang and the various interpretations of the cultural terms and concepts, could lead to confusion, embarrassment and expensive mistakes. Not all communication is written or spoken. Non-verbal language, often referred to as the silent language can pose serous problems to international business managers.

Each society has different attitudes towards time. Punctuality, for example, can cause confusion and misunderstanding in various cultures.

The body language determines how to behave correctly in a foreign environment. The smallest details of body language can be extremely important to the conduct of international business. The ways in which people move their bodies, stand, sit, cross their legs, touch and walk differ from one country to another.

Language of space, for example, refers to the size of offices and their location. In most US and Western firms the president and high executives of the company will have the largest offices, usually on the top floor. The Japanese, on the other hand, prefer to work together in an open area. In the Arab world, and in Saudi Arabia in particular, women are not allowed to work in the same offices as men. The Chinese conception of the proper social distance between people in a room, or in an elevator, is somewhat closer than that common to many Western cultures, especially in Germany and America.

- It is not enough to know how people behave in other cultures and how to do business with them. It is also important to understand why they behave the way they do. Religious beliefs shape many kinds of individual behavior, whether economic, political, legal or social. Ignorance of differences in religious beliefs could lead to frustration and misunderstanding, poor productivity and a drastic reduction in the sales of products, or even cause the ultimate failure of a business.

- Refer to the art, folklore, music, drama, myth, legends, sculpture and architecture of a culture. Understanding and interpreting the symbolic meaning of various aesthetics can be problematic for business managers. Use of symbols, for example, could have a distinctive meaning unique to a particular culture.

The use and meaning of colour is also of particular importance to international business, because in most cultures colour is used as a symbol that conveys specific messages. Colour perceptions vary greatly from one culture to another.

Green, for example, is a very popular colour in muslim countries, but is also associated with disease in countries with dense, green jungles, while in France green is associated with cosmetics. Black is the colour of death in the America, Europe and the Middle East. In Japan and Asia white is the colour of mourning, and black symbolizes power, luxury, prestige and high quality.

- Understanding the educational environment in foreign countries is crucial to successful international business operations. Looking at the educational background of the foreign country in which a multinational firm is contemplating doing business could provide important information for the personnel manager in determining, for example, the quality of local workforce available for employment.

Understanding the level of education can also assist marketers in evaluating and assessing the levels of sophistication of local customers, the nature of the media to be used and the kind of approach to be used in advertising. If, for example, the local customers are largely illiterate, advertising and package labels would have to be adapted using more visual aids.

Social Institutions
- Social institutions, beliefs and values refer to the ways in which people in different cultures relate to each other. Elements of social organization include, gender, age, family, class structure and social hierarchy.

Attitudes and Moral Issues
- To successfully deal with a new culture, whether with a person from specific company or different country, you must make an effort to identify their cultural values and inherent priorities, and how they differ from.

Business Practices
- The way you present yourself during the first encounter may open or close the door to many other opportunities. People from every culture have different procedures they follow and different expectations when interacting with others the first time.

These are based on the beliefs of each culture and are additionally derived from the individual value system of each person. This is why the initial meeting with an executive from a different culture must be approached with care and understanding.

Bibliography #8

Kloss, Ingomar. "More Advertising Worldwide." 2002. p 4

(Some of the qualities listed here are very relevant to the development of my Mediator agency which provides "cultural-linguistic-CREATIVE-interpreter-translator" mediators for multinational, national and local advertising agencies especially in the Asia Pacific Region)

The Multicultural Manager
1. Managers need to have cross-cultural skills, which means the ability to demonstrate a sequence of behavior that is functionally related to attaining a performance goal.
2. True multicultural manager is more "cosmopolitan" - that is, innovative leaders who are effective intercultural communicators and negotiators.
3. The multicultural manager is comfortable operating anywhere in the world whether representing a business, a government, a foundation, an association or a profession.
4. Are capable of functioning readily around their homeland and its regional groupings, or of moving across borders.

Characteristically they:
a) Understand the nature of culture, and how it influences behavior in the workplace.
b) Recognize the differences between cultures.
c) Recognize which and how cultural factors influence the expression of business structures, systems, and priorities.
d) Think beyond local perceptions, and transform stereotypes into positive views of people.
e) Prepare for new mindshifts, while eliminating old mindsets.
f) Re-create cultural assumptions, norms, and practices based on new insights and experiences.
g) Reprogram their mental maps and constructs.
h) Adapt readily to new and unusual circumstances and lifestyles.
i) Welcome and facilitate transitional experiences.
j) Acquire multicultural competencies and skills, including foreign languages.
k) Create cultural synergy whenever and wherever feasible.
l) Operate effectively in multinational/multicultural environments.
m) Envision transnational opportunities and enterprises (LIKE ME..... Hehehe!)
n) Create optimistic and doable scenarios for future.

To fulfill all these different requirements a new job profile has to be created to go inline with this multicultural task. A survey conducted by Topfer has made clear what the expectations are asked for by the international enterprises. (I have found the survey online)

If multicultural firms are to prosper now and in the future, they must develop managers who can successfully operate in a cross-cultural organization. Working together is different from doing business together as buyer and seller. It requires a deeper understanding of why people from different backgrounds behave the way they do.

Thursday, June 01, 2006

Bibliography #7

Kloss, Ingomar. "Advertising Worldwide." Advertising Conditions in Selected Countries. 2001. pp 1 - 22

International advertising agencies faces completely different situations concerning information about the market conditions in a foreign country. Compared with national advertising, standards of procuring and interpreting information are higher in international advertising. Media behavior is related to the communication styles of individual cultures, and there are extremely wide differences in the advertising conditions per country.

This entry is on Individualism vs Collectivism and how the media behavior (in this case regarding to placement of advertising campaigns), is related to the communications styles of cultures. The use of the WWW and ownership of personal computers varies widely across different cultures and countries, as it is also culturally bound. Values of national culture influence consumption and buying habits. As communication behavior is related to culture, it is particularly important for international advertisers to understand their relationship. Style of arts, literature and interpersonal communication of countries are reflected in their advertising styles. By understanding the general communication styles of cultures, it is easier to personalized or create a marketing exercise/ad campaign targeted towards these different cultures and countries.

Individualist Culture
- People look after themselves and their immediate family only.
- Values are in the person.
- More explicit verbal communication.
- Individualist cultures are more verbally oriented - verbally oriented cultures tend to read more.
- People are more likely to take their work home.

Collectivist Culture
- People belong to in-groups who look after them in exchange for loyalty.
- A person's identity is based in the social network to which one belongs.
- More implicit verbal communication.
- Collectivist cultures are more visually oriented.
- Taking work home is not the usual behavior in collectivist cultures.

Approximately 70% of the world population is collectivist. The north-west of Europe, the USA, Australia and New Zealand are individualist.

p/s: Looked up the internet last night and there is a second version of the same book covering more countries. I want to get it.

Book Description
This book deals with all aspects of advertising in selected countries. It is a follow-up of Advertising Worldwide by the same editor. The leading magazine "Werben und Verkaufen" (Advertising and Selling) wrote in its review to that volume: "For all advertisers, agencies and students an absolute must is this reader with contributions to the state as well as to the different cultural and legal conditions of advertising worldwide".(Issue 40/2001) The book covers Bulgaria, China, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom and contains a chapter on intercultural management and a case study of Barclaycard International. The authors are specialists from the respective countries.