Saturday, June 03, 2006

Bibliography #12

Banerjee, Ashish. "International Advertising." Realities and Myths. Part 1, The Realities of International Advertising: International Advertising Developments. 2000. p 13 - 27

ATT: This entry is on International Advertising. Everything is lifted out of Ashish Banerjee's work for a simple reason that it is easier for me to come back to it later and only paraphrase the parts lifted, which I think is very relevant to my paper.

Nowadays, there is a lot of advertising campaigns that employ predominantly visual messages, obviating the need for language translation, and possible miscommunication, across borders.

I bet you guys know or maybe don't know this, BUT advertising is a worldwide business activity today. As marketers expand into countries they have previously not explored, and as media proliferate across countries, advertising is gaining momentum around the world. For those of you guys who travel a lot, you will see that advertising is the most visible manifestation of the globalization of business in general and of brands in particular.

The term INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING is widely used to denote cross-border advertising. The widest usage of the term INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING is in the context of advertising for brands that are marketed in many countries. Such advertising is also referred to as global, multinational, multicountry, or cross-national advertising.

ADVERTISING IN THE CONTEXT OF BRANDS MARKETED AND ADVERTISED IN MANY COUNTRIES. There are a number of terms used to refer to advertising of brands marketed in many countries.

Global Advertising
This term is used to refer to advertising for universally ubiquitous brands, such as Coca-Cola, Marlboro cigarettes, Kodak photographic film, Benetton apparel, gucci accessories, Sony home electronics, and Perrier bottled water. Typically, the term global should be used as a qualifier only when the brand is available in a very large number of countries. and employs the same advertising executions in almost all of those countries.

The number of truly global brands are limited. Further it is not always necessary for a global brand to use global advertising executions.

International Advertising
Depending on the context, this term could refer to advertising from out of the country, or to global advertising, or to the international dimension of the advertising agency business.

Multinational Advertising
This term is used to refer to the advertising for multinational brands - brands that may not be as ubiquitous as global brands, but are nevertheless available in a large number of countries. E.g. Impulse body spray, Camay, Palmolive soaps, Head & Shoulders, Sunsilk/Gloria/Sedal, L'oreal hair-care line, Colgate and others.Most major airlines like Singapore, Lufthansa and British Airways.

Usually the development of advertising of such brands is somewhat centralized, with the "lead agency" or a major worldwide advertising network (usually New york, London or Paris office) being responsible for strategic planning and creative development.

Transnational Advertising
A more evolutionary and recent term used to connote advertising (for multinational brands) developed in a more participatory, decentralized manner, with the input of consumers, the agency network's personnel, and the client's marketing personnel from the various countries where the advertising will eventually be exposed.

Multidomestic Advertising
This is referred to the advertising used for a multidomestic brand - a brand that might have the same name across a number of countries but is characterized by different states of brand development and a relatively low degree of brand standardization across those countries. The advertising for such a brand would vary widely from country to country, depending upon the marketer's strategic intent and the set of circumstances contingent upon the brand in each country.

Multicountry Advertising Campaign Development.
Multicountry advertising campaigns are employed by marketers mainly when a particular brand is at a sufficiently significant level of development and sales in a fairly large number of countries.

A "good", effective multicountry advertising campaign focuses convincingly on the similarities while making allowances for the differences.

The development process for multinational campaigns is complex, because it involves many stages and many people (like me!!!!) in many countries. The advertising development process can run two ways:

1. Single-country development, subsequent testing, and rollout: A commercial is developed and exposed in one country, usually the brand's "lead market", where it generates the largest volumes of sales. If it successfully meets or exceeds its communication and effectiveness action standards,it is then tested in all other countries where the brand is marketed. If it tests well, management will usually decide to run the same commercial unchanged or with minor modifications to suit social, cultural, or executional difference across countries. Currently, minor or sometimes major changes are the norm.

2. Multicountry development and exposure: Agencies have begun to use multicountry teams to develop both advertising strategy and creative executions. This process ensures strategic and executional consistencies in the advertising used across all the markets, but is is usually employable for a limited number of brands in circumstances where the brands' constituencies of consumers are reasonably similar across countries.

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